Please use this identifier to cite or link to this item:
Title: Tamerlane’s Campaigns in Central Ciscaucasia, 1395–1396: Localizations, Research Difficulties
Other Titles: Походы армии Тамерлана в Центральное Предкавказье в 1395–1396 гг. (локализация, проблемы изучения)
Authors: Kolesnikova, M. E.
Колесникова, М. Е.
Babenko, V. A.
Бабенко, В. А.
Keywords: Army base;Tamerlane;Baggage train;Campaigns;Central Ciscaucasia;Foothills;Majar;Mountains;North Caucasus
Issue Date: 2023
Publisher: Oriental Studies
Citation: Kolesnikova, M.E., Babenko, V.A. Tamerlane’s Campaigns in Central Ciscaucasia, 1395–1396: Localizations, Research Difficulties // Oriental Studies. - 2023. - 16 (2), pp. 252-267. - DOI: 10.22162/2619-0990-2023-66-2-252-267
Abstract: The article attempts to localize Tamerlane’s campaigns of 1395–1396 in Central Ciscaucasia aimed to weaken the Golden Horde, eliminate chief forces of Tokhtamysh and his allies native to the region invaded. Goals. The study seeks to analyze and compare data from artefacts, written and phonic sources relating to Tamerlane’s campaigns in Central Ciscaucasia, clarify the roles once played therein by archaeological sites investigated across Stavropol Krai. Materials and methods. The paper focuses on artefacts, written and phonic sources. The former include ones contained in the occupation layer of Majar hillfort and bearing traces of the city’s demolition in the late 14th century CE, as well as those from two other sites of the Golden Horde era — Novopavlovka and Kochubeevskoe-1 settlements. The examined written sources are works by Arab, Persian and Western European authors, including modern ones. As for medieval Arab and Persian sources, the most detailed accounts for further analysis are contained in Books of Victory by Nizam al-Din Shami and Sharaf al-Din ‘Ali Yazdi, as well as in chronicles by Abd-al-Razzāq Samarqandī. Most precious data has been discovered in J. Schiltberger’s writing, oral accounts summarized by E. Çelebi and A. Firkovich. The work employs the historical-systemic, historical-comparative, and cartographic methods. The analysis is supplemented with results of scientific surveys recently conducted across glaciers of the Central and West Caucasus. Results. In spring of 1395, Tamerlane invaded the East and Central Caucasus to defeat Tokhtamysh in the decisive battle that took place in the Malka-Kura interfluve. Later in autumn and winter of 1395–1396, the invaders would return to the North Caucasus for raids throughout the lands of Kuban and Beshtau. Conclusions. In 1395–1396, Tamerlane was following a certain plan of his compiled with due regard for natural/climatic conditions of the region and seasonal economic cycles of Central Ciscaucasia’s nomads. The invading troops kept the field with the use of local resources — foodstuffs of Dzhulat county, summer pastures of Bishdag, and winter pastures of the Kuma-Manych Depression. Tamerlane was devastating the right wing of the Ulus of Jochi to take into possession the resources previously deployed by rulers of the Golden Horde.
Appears in Collections:Статьи, проиндексированные в SCOPUS, WOS

Files in This Item:
File SizeFormat 
scopusresults 2685 .pdf
  Restricted Access
138.13 kBAdobe PDFView/Open

Items in DSpace are protected by copyright, with all rights reserved, unless otherwise indicated.