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|Title:||Dictionary interpretation of names with the meaning of occupations, crafts as a source of socio-cultural information (based on the dictionaries of the 19Th century)|
|Authors:||Gryaznova, V. M.|
Грязнова, В. М.
|Keywords:||Definition;Dictionary interpretation;Semantic component "occupation / craft";Syncretism|
|Publisher:||Tomsk State University|
|Citation:||Gryaznova, V.M. Dictionary interpretation of names with the meaning of occupations, crafts as a source of socio-cultural information (based on the dictionaries of the 19Th century) // Voprosy Leksikografii. - 2017. - Pages 132-142|
|Series/Report no.:||Voprosy Leksikografii|
|Abstract:||The object of the research is dictionary definitions of personal nouns meaning an occupation, craft, taken from different types of dictionaries on the vocabulary of the first half and middle of the 19th century. The subject of the research is the socio-cultural information of the time fixed in dictionary entries. First, the author shows that the semantic component "occupation / craft" in the meaning of the studied lexemes is realized in dictionary definitions in the form of a bundle of variant specific implementations, among which the most common are: 1) "by occupation manufactures", 2) "by occupation sells". The author then describes the types of lexicographic fixation the typical specific implementations: 1) separately, by different words, 2) separately, by different meanings, realized alternatively, of a polysemantic lexeme, 3) together, within the same meaning. The author specifies that for the purposes of the research the second and third cases are informative. Analyzing the dictionary definitions of the second group, the author identifies strict and non-strict disjunction. Strict disjunction includes the following definitions: (1) if not X (in the contexts, "does not manufacture"), then Y (in the contexts, "implements somehow"); (2) if not Y, then X (represented in the definition of the lexeme stekol 'shchik [glazier]). Non-strict disjunction includes the following definitions: (1) either X; (2) either Y; (3) perhaps X and Y together (represented in the definition of the lexeme ugol'shchik [charcoal dealer]). Analyzing the dictionary definitions of the third group, in which words denoting occupation, craft are described as syncretically expressing different specifiers of this semantic component, the author identifies that this is a common feature of definitions in dictionaries of different types: academie explanatory, learner's explanatory, encyclopedic, dictionaries of the living great Russian language, of foreign words. Next, the author focuses on the comparison of definitions of the studied names in the 1834 Sokolov Dictionary and in the 1847 Dictionary: both dictionaries are explanatory, they were published with a gap of 13 years. In addition, the Sokolov Dictionary is one of the two lexicographic publications that the 1847 Dictionary was based on. The compilers of the 1847 Dictionary did not change some definitions of the words, agreeing with the Sokolov Dictionary view on separate or syncretic functions of a person within a particular craft. Part of the definitions of the studied words were changed in the 1847 Dictionary, not agreeing with the Sokolov Dictionary view on separate or syncretic functions of a person within a particular craft, which indicates the non-randomness of the selection of disjunctive or conjunctive representations of functions of "manufacturer" and "seller" in the definitions, the conscious choice of the type of definition and, therefore, the meaningful difference made by the compilers of the dictionary in these types of definitions. Based on the above, the author concludes that in the 19th-century dictionaries definitions of categories of person with the meaning of occupation, craft reflect the process of differentiation of occupation and establishment of a profession as it is currently understood; they suggest that this process was living, complex, gradual, sometimes contradictory, and demonstrate the view of the dictionary compilers on the life of the Russian society of the 19th century|
|Appears in Collections:||Статьи, проиндексированные в SCOPUS, WOS|
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